Detours is a library that allows you to hook arbitrary functions by rewriting machine code. While a description of the exact implementation approach can be found in the corresponding paper as well as in numerous other sources, the basic idea is as follows: In the to-be-hooked function, disassemble the first instructions until you have read at least 5 bytes. As instructions are variable length on x86, we may end up having to read more than 5 bytes to reach the next instruction boundary.
For a procedure that is free of side effects, it is a relatively easy task to create a unit test that achieves sufficient code coverage by testing all (or at least all interesting) combinations of input data and verifying the computed results. If, however, the procedure is not free of side effects, the state (global variables, external data, etc.) modified by the procedure has to be taken into account. A solid testcase has to test both the effects of the state on the correctness of the procedure and the correctness of the procedure’s modifications on the state.
Registry keys and values have a maximum length, as documented on MSDN. For example, the maximum permitted length of a key is 255 characters – interestingly enough, the question of whether this includes or excludes the NULL terminator is left unanswered. May it be due to this fuzzy documentation or not, Microsoft’s tools and API do not quite seem to agree on a common interpretation of maximum key length, which revealed this little bug in Regedit.
There are three common error code formats used throughout Windows. In the kernel and native part, NTSTATUS is used exclusively. The Win32 API uses its own error codes (they do not really have a name, so I will refer to them as Win32 error codes) and COM uses HRESULTs – though the separation is not always so sharp, e.g. the safe string functions (StringCch* and friends) also return HRESULTs although they do not belong to COM.